These names and their colorful uniforms seemed suitable for the short and glorious war southerners expected. Secession precipitated the American Civil War. Texas was the last of a raft of states to secede from the Union. Thomas Overton Moore was elected Democratic governor of Louisiana in November 1859. States were required to hold individual state conventions where they would repeal the ordinances of secession and ratify the Thirteenth Amendment. Louisiana, like the other states, could not see the desolation that lay ahead when it entered a war expected to last only a few weeks. What was the first state that seceded the Union? Shall we remain quiet and wait to see him inaugurated, and develop his plan and policy or shall we anticipate what it will be, and act at once to takes steps for our self-preservation? Many believe that secession is what caused the war too. The economic reason for the southern states to secede from the Union was slavery. The South believed in the concept of slavery. On February 1, 1861, delegates of the state of Texas resolved to secede from the federal Union of the United States of America. Northern delegates to the Democratic Party convention supported Stephen A. Douglas of Illinois, but the southern Democrats disagreed with his position on slavery, which they felt was not pro-slavery enough. The salt for preserving the beef came from several salt deposits around the state. Later four more states seceded after the exchange of fire at Fort Sumter in April 1861. One reason had to deal with slavery. The Confederate draft also exempted anyone owning twenty or more slaves through the so-called "Twenty Slave Law"; this exemption and the right to pay a substitute seemed to aim the conscription law at the poor man. The women of Louisiana also helped "The Cause." (You can unsubscribe anytime). The official state returns, which were not released for more than a century, list secessionist delegates as capturing 52.7 percent of the vote. The pressure of the slavery issue split the Democratic Party convention wide open and led to a presidential election in 1860 with four candidates. But in 1860 Louisianians could not see what lay ahead. That the people of the State of Mississippi hereby consent to form a federal union with such of the States as may have seceded or may secede from the Union of the United States of America, upon the basis of the present Constitution of the said United States, except such parts thereof as embrace other portions than such seceding States. There were five main reasons for the secession of the southern state. Some delegates maintained that cooperating with their fellow southern states now meant leaving rather than remaining in the Union. The spirited soldiers drilled to "save the South." The idea of secession is not new, as the Theory of Nullification known. Privately they maintained that they opposed immediate secession but felt obliged to follow the lead of their constituents. Palmer. the Republican Party) in the Northern free states threatened the existence of the slave-holding states: So bitter is this hostility felt toward slavery, which these fifteen states regard as a great social and political blessing, that it exhibits itself in legislation for the avowed purpose of destroying the rights of slaveholders guaranteed by the Constitution and protected by the Acts of Congress... [in] the North, a widespread sympathy with felons has deepened the distrust in the permanent Federal Government, and awakened sentiments favorable to a separation of states.[3]. Every state in the Confederacy issued an “Article of Secession” declaring their break from the Union. Because a large part of the population had Union sympathies (or compatible commercial interests), the U.S. government took the unusual step of designating the areas of Louisiana then under U.S. control as a state within the Union, with its own elected representatives to the U.S. Congress. The cry for secession spread as quickly as a yellow fever epidemic, and the results were just as deadly. Once war became the ugly reality of blood and death, fewer men wanted to enlist. A draft or conscription required all men of a certain age to enlist in the army. Diseases spread quickly through the troops. Immediately thereafter, convention president Alexandre Mouton proclaimed the connection between Louisiana and the United States to be dissolved, and in a symbolic demonstration of this change in status, the delegates lowered the American flag in the chamber and replaced it with a flag depicting a pelican feeding her young (the image on the state seal). The new president of the United States had not received one vote in the state. He warned the secession threatened the interests and destiny of Louisiana, He predicted war, ruin, and decline. In particular, Governor Moore’s pro-secession speech at the opening of the special December legislative session set the mood for the election of convention delegates on January 7, 1861. New Orleans: Printed at the office of the True witness and sentinel, 1860. Camp Walker, located at the Metairie Race Track, became the first training site. Soldiers on both sides called the Civil War "a rich man's war and a poor man's fight.". Subscribe today to support our mission and contributors. After the members arrived in their new location, they sent six delegates to the Montgomery, Alabama, convention that formed the Confederacy, seized the US Mint in New Orleans, and ratified the Confederate constitution on March 21 before adjourning on March 26. For the latter part of the war, both the Union and the Confederacy recognized their own distinct Louisianan governors. The U.S. state of Louisiana declared that it had seceded from the United States on January 26, 1861. ", Dew, Charles B. ", Lathrop, Barnes F. "The Lafourche District in 1861-1862: A Problem in Local Defense. It was followed four months later by the states of Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas and Louisiana. 4) Economic and social differences. Pine torches lighted a night parade in New Orleans. A wealthy planter and slaveholder, Moore acted aggressively to engineer the secession of Louisiana from the Union by a convention on January 23. Epidemics such as measles killed many soldiers before they ever left the camp. In fact, more than 12,000 men who had voted in the November presidential election (approximately one in four of those who had cast ballots) declined to vote in January. Louisiana’s political leaders, particularly Governor Thomas Overton Moore and Senator John Slidell, placed themselves in the vanguard of state’s secession movement. To the question "What were the political and economic causes of the civil war?" Secession was driven by the Southern planter class. South Carolina seceded first, on December 20, 1860. By February of 1861 Mississippi, Florida, Alabama. Throughout the prewar period, Louisiana repeatedly rejected the initiative of radical southerners who demanded that the South leave the Union. Although they did not initially join to a Confederate Union composed of other southern states which seceded, mutual protection demanded that a confederation be formed, and Texas became a part on March 22. Additionally, partially in an effort to protect its western boundary, Louisiana sent an envoy to Texas to persuade the Lone Star State to join its sister slaveholding states outside the Union. The camp, although close to New Orleans, was soon abandoned. They also refused to release the official vote totals from the January 7 election of delegates, perhaps worried that publishing data which indicated that 47.3 percent of the state’s voters had supported cooperationist candidates would undermine their cause. Both motivations alone were not enough. Louisiana kept this independent status until March 21, 1861, when it transferred its allegiance to the Confederate States of America. Providing adequate food and supplies was a constant problem. Governor Moore began to organize military resistance at the state level, ordered the burning of cotton, cessation of trade with the Union forces, and heavily recruited troops for the state militia. Louisiana called itself a country for less than two weeks. Secession, in U.S. history, the withdrawal of 11 slave states (states in which slaveholding was legal) from the Union during 1860–61 following the election of Abraham Lincoln as president. Secessionists captured the majority of seats. Monogrammed linen pillowcases became sandbags at Port Hudson, and treasured carpets became blankets for freezing soldiers. The Republican Party did not even exist in Louisiana, so Lincoln's name was not on the ballot there. Their new sewing machines became part of assembly lines. "The Louisiana Secession Convention. They learned to ignore the bugs floating on the water. It influenced the country in three major ways: the South to rely on cotton plantations for its profits, to stand by slavery and its benefits, and to secede from the Union. Political causes . While exact results are impossible to obtain, the best estimates indicate that eighty delegates should be labeled secessionists in contrast to forty-four cooperationists and six unknown. Part of the discrepancy between this voting percentage and the number of secessionist delegates stems from the fact that in many areas delegates ran uncontested, thus reducing voters’ desire to cast a ballot. All Rights Reserved. In the South, many twentieth-century libertarians thought they had found a political culture supporting free trade (especially through low tariffs) and limited government (using the vehicle of “States’ Rights”). His opinion, however, was not included in the official record of the proceedings. Many newspapers reprinted the sermon, and more than fifty thousand copies were distributed. Lincoln’s election changed the political calculus in Louisiana. In St. Charles Parish, a man was ordered to leave because he cheered on Lincoln. The South was filled with talk of secession. After the ordinance of secession passed the convention on January 26, 1861, Moore placed Colonel Braxton Bragg in command of the state military. A wealthy planter and slaveholder, Moore acted aggressively to engineer the secession of Louisiana from the Union by a convention on January 23. In the 1832 Nullification Crisis, Louisiana offered no support to South Carolina “fire-eaters” (fervent secessionists), and former Louisiana Senator Edward Livingston even wrote Andrew Jackson’s Force Bill, which pledged military action against those who resisted federal law. The documents can be found in their entirety In his inaugural address, Moore told the legislators and visitors at the Capitol that a powerful anti-slavery party (i.e. Secession had a long history in the United States—but as a threat rather than as an actual dissolution of the Union. Yet, from an economic and political perspective, clearly, secession would have weakened the blossoming new nation and created an atmosphere that would have much more closely resembled war … We do further declare and ordain, That the State of Louisiana hereby resumes all rights and powers heretofore delegated to the Government of the United States of America; that her citizens are absolved from all allegiance to said Government; and that she is in full possession and exercise of all those rights of sovereignty which appertain to a free and independent State. A discourse, delivered in the First Presbyterian Church, New Orleans, on Thursday, November 29, 1860, by B.M. 2) States vs federal rights. Courtesy of Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, A protest against the ordinance of secession. The "history" of tariffs clearly show that they were low the three decades prior the CW, but the secessionists claim that was one of the reasons for secession 1860. I think it could happen today. [2] The extremists among the southern Democrats, labeled "Fire-Eaters" because of their strong pro-slavery speeches, led a walkout at the convention. The American Civil War was a conflict that lasted from 1861 to 1865. Leaders in the South also wanted to preserve the rights of the states to govern themselves. Around the state, they organized themselves into companies. “The Long Lost Returns: The Candidates and Their Totals in Louisiana’s Secession Election.” Louisiana History 10 (Fall 1969): 353–369. After voting 113 to 17 in favor of secession on the third day of the convention, the delegates strove to maintain all appearances of unity. These are important questions.” And, for the next two months, Louisiana’s voters and political leaders struggled over the best answers to these “important questions.”. The former group endorsed secession, while the latter group included some unionists but mainly comprised those who wanted to have a conference of southern states prior to any state’s secession. Adopted in convention at Baton Rouge this January 26, 1861.[1]. It has long been conventional wisdom among certain libertarians and classical liberal historians that the southern Confederacy was a great bastion of Jeffersonianism. [4] After the ordinance of secession passed the convention on January 26, 1861, Moore placed Colonel Braxton Bragg in command of the state military. All but seven members signed the secession ordinance, and the delegates reacted swiftly and decisively when James G. Taliaferro, a Catahoula Parish delegate and one of the convention’s most ardent unionists, lodged a protest against secession contending that it presaged anarchy and war. A Bostonian piano manufacturer in Shreveport was advised to leave town because he was a known Lincoln supporter. I assume the question is referring to the American Civil War. First, John Brown’s failed abolitionist raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in October 1859 heightened sensitivity toward both immediate threats to slavery and to the strengthening Republican Party. Sacher, John M., A Perfect War of Politics: Parties, Politicians, and Democracy in Louisiana, 1824–1861. Ranches in southwest Louisiana and Texas supplied the cattle for a slaughterhouse south of Alexandria. Judge James G. Taliaferro of Catahoula Parish was the most outspoken opponent. They heard speeches loaded with words like honor, self-respect, and principle. The governor called for homes and businesses to put lights in their windows to show their support. The split among the Democrats handed the Republicans victory. Defenders of the Confederacy, as odd as that may even sound, disingenuously claim that even if this was … On December 20, 1860, South Carolina, seceded. Finding respite in 64 PARISHES during the COVID-19 crisis? Cotton became King in the South in the 18th century. Two days before the city surrendered in April 1862, Moore and the legislature abandoned Baton Rouge as the state capital, relocating to Opelousas on May 1, 1862. The focus shifted fanatically to equipment and supplies. Consequently, the rise of a sectional Republican Party dedicated to stopping slavery’s expansion caused Louisianans to reevaluate their allegiance to the United States. The bounty was a one-time reward for enlisting. There were several reasons why the South wanted to secede from the Union. Another predicted, "You might as well try to breathe life into a mummy of Ancient Egypt as to expect the Union to be preserved." They heard Lincoln labeled a "black Republican Abolitionist" who would end their (slavery-based) way of life. When Lincoln comes to power it behaves as if nothing had happened. But the state's planters saw the increasing pressure from abolitionists as an economic threat. On January 26, 1861, the delegates to Louisiana’s secession convention meeting in Baton Rouge voted 113 to 17 to secede from the Union. John Slidell spent most of the war trying to persuade European nations to support the Confederacy. Second, the presidential election of 1860 dealt a further blow to the state’s conservatism. Additionally, the delegates decided against popular ratification of secession by 84 to 45, contending that voters had already had their say when they elected the delegates. On January 26, 1861, the Secession Convention voted 113 to 17 to adopt the Ordinance of Secession. In the early days of the war, equipment and supplies were furnished by parish governments, wealthy individuals, or the soldiers themselves. Not only did the state cast its electoral votes for John C. Breckinridge, the candidate of the southern wing of the Democratic Party, but the election resulted in the triumph of Republican Abraham Lincoln, who had not received a single popular vote in Louisiana. Secession. It was taken by U.S. troops on April 25, 1862. Often you’ll hear people defending the Confederate States’ rebellion (treason) during the American Civil War as an act of “States’ Rights” and not about defending the institution of slavery. 1) Election of Lincoln. Roland, Charles P. “Louisiana and Secession.” Louisiana History 19 (Fall 1978): 389–99. Three weeks prior to the contest, a Democrat accurately framed Louisianans’ options in the event of Lincoln’s victory: “What are we to do? On February 4, 1861, the State of Louisiana joined the Confederate States of America, the new nation formed by the southern states that seceded. The Southern States in the United States believed they had good reasons for seceding from the Union. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003. Louisiana's political leaders hoped the Missouri Compromise and the Compromise of 1850 would protect slavery and preserve the Union. Surrounded by swamp and with no safe drinking water, the camp was a poor location for an army. The Catholics were predominantly Francophones of French, Spanish, African, and/or Amérindien origin. A New Orleans factory switched from making clothing for plantations to making uniforms. Why would they not join the Confederacy? 5) fight between Slave and Non-Slave State Proponents . “Who Won the Secession Election in Louisiana.” Journal of Southern History 36 (February 1970): 18–32. Four border states held slaves but remained in the Union. Louisiana secedes from the Union. They then held their own convention and named John C. Breckinridge of Kentucky as their candidate. First, you must understand the demographic of the State at the time. In total seven states South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas left the Union before the inauguration of Lincoln. The sound of cannon fire would soon create a very difficult emotion in a city under attack. "Who Won the Secession Election in Louisiana?. When the first soldiers left home, they expected to return quickly. We do further declare and ordain, That all rights acquired and vested under the Constitution of the United States, or any act of Congress, or treaty, or under any law of this State, and not incompatible with this ordinance, shall remain in force and have the same effect as if this ordinance had not been passed. Most of the state's citizens celebrated secession. The Civil War came after years of struggle over the issues of slavery and states' rights. > Calhoun's doctrine > Union not fulfilled its obligations like the Fugitive Slave Act > Federal gov. Winters, John D. The Civil War in Louisiana. The newly formed Confederate government gained the political skills of Louisiana's ex-United States senators. Virginia seceded, then West Virginia seceded from Virginia and rejoined the Union. The overwhelming pro-secession vote at the convention undoubtedly overstates antebellum Louisianans’ commitment to secession. In 1861, Louisiana was ready for war in the only attitude. All of those who left the Union were slave owning states. Newspapers carried the names of men who were willing to serve as substitutes. Okay, this post is in the wrong thread. Candidates for the secession convention did not run as party nominees but instead divided between secessionists and cooperationists. In Charleston garrison of Fort Sunter remains faithful to the Union and does not leave. The argument put forward by President Jefferson Davis in his memoirs that the issue of secession was wholly based on the South's efforts to restore the intent of the Constitution that states would maintain their sovereignty in a federal union is complicated. 0 0. tuffy. When war erupted, he unsuccessfully lobbied the Confederate government in Richmond for a strong defense of New Orleans. Shall we have a Southern Convention of the slave states or will each state act by itself? One political reason was that the Confederate States of America (also called South) wanted each state more sovereign than the federation, or confederacy. The overall vote totals point to a less decisive victory. Instead, the war dragged on and families suffered. Camp Moore became the main training location for Louisiana's soldiers. Lincoln's election brought an immediate reaction. Dew, Charles B. Secession is the act of a state formally leaving the Union. Nevertheless, their public actions certainly pushed their fellow Louisianans away from the Union. ); Louisiana was the sixth slave state to declare that it had seceded from the U.S. and joined the C.S. Later, the state supported the Compromise of 1850 and did not send a delegation to that year’s secessionist Nashville Convention. That happened in 1861. But too soon the ladies stopped designing battle flags and began making bandages. Finally, the Confederacy did not have enough volunteers. Although Louisiana imported most finished goods, some manufacturing did exist. With southern states actively leaving the Union, war broke out. For the purposes of this article, let's stipulate that the preservation of slavery and the plantation economy was the primary objective in seceding from the United States. By the end of 1865, a number of former Confederate leaders were in the Union capital looking to claim their seats in Congress. What shall these steps be? The conscription law included a substitution clause, which allowed men to pay someone else to take his place. Governor Moore held office from 1860 through early 1864. Lv 7. That may sound silly to readers. ___. Louisiana also contributed four key generals to the Confederate army – Braxton Bragg, Leonidas Polk, Richard Taylor, and P. G. T. Beauregard. C ontrary to conventional assumptions, many Louisianans opposed secession and the Confederacy during the Civil War and remained loyal to the Union for several reasons, among them: local politics, economic or familial connections to the North, and a strong sense of nationalism. "The Long Lost Returns: The Candidates and Their Totals in Louisiana's Secession Election. Another faction of southerners with hopes to preserve the Union, which included many former Whigs, formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John C. Bell of Tennessee as a moderate compromise candidate. Brine was pumped out of the ground and boiled down in kettles to get the salt. Post-Constitution, the first major threat of full state secession came during the Jefferson administration, when the New England states, led by Thomas Pickering, threatened to dissolve their participation in the Union. Additionally, with four other states—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Mississippi—having joined South Carolina outside the Union, the meaning of “cooperation” was less clear. Additionally, by the time Louisianans voted in early January, South Carolina had seceded, and four other southern states had elected pro-secession conventions. Reasons for Secession . The states that seceded were South Carolina,Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, and Louisiana. One-Year subscription (4 issues) : $20.00, Two-Year subscription (8 issues) : $35.00, © 64 Parishes 2021. The latter end of this thread is a discussion on tariffs, which is an economic history topic. They would "teach the Yankee a lesson... and settle matters within 60 days." On January 8, 1861, Governor Moore ordered the Louisiana militia to occupy the Federal arsenal at Baton Rouge and the Federal forts guarding New Orleans, Jackson and St. Philip. A quick and even lazy look at all the Southern States’ Ordinances of Secession and Declaration of Causes reveals that the war was indeed over slavery. Other events contributed toward the secessionist atmosphere in Louisiana. trying to abolish slavery > The election of Lincoln > States have a right to govern themselves. Texas, Mississippi, Georgia and South Carolina all issued additional documents, usually referred to as the “Declarations of Causes," which explain their decision to leave the Union. Louisiana’s political leaders, particularly Governor Thomas Overton Moore and Senator John Slidell, placed themselves in the vanguard of state’s secession movement. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1963. The convention itself briefly adjourned to move from Baton Rouge to New Orleans in order to allow the state legislature to meet at the capitol. The Confederacy needed an army. Instead, they endorsed an activist nationalist government, especially regarding a sugarcane tariff and government aid to business, in a manner more akin to the northern branch of the party rather than to other southern Whigs who advocated for states’ rights. Also, Louisiana’s Whigs did not share the small government proclivities of their southern neighbors. Volunteer units quickly sprang up. Privately they maintained that they opposed immediate secession but felt obliged to follow the lead of their constituents. The overwhelming failure of a call to send delegates to a southern convention in Nashville (24 in favor and 106 against) illustrates this decline in anti-secessionist sentiment. Some supporters of states' rights also believed that states had the right to leave the Union. But life in any training camp was difficult. 3) Growing abolition movement. These documents were sent to the federal government and stated that state's particular reasons for seceding from the Union. New Orleans, Louisiana, the largest city in the entire South, was strategically important as a port city due to its location along the Mississippi River and its access to the Gulf of Mexico, and the United States War Department very early on planned on its capture. Taliaferro, James G (Author). Ladies' sewing circles made uniforms and cartridge bags. This method left the meat tough and very salty, and the soldiers had to boil the meat for hours before they could eat it. the governor of Louisiana that led the state to secession; organized the capture of federal arsenals at Baton Rouge, Fort Jackson and Fort St. Phillip . Discovering the extensive salt deposits at Avery Island gave the Confederates a valuable source. In the wake of the convention’s vote, the state prepared for war. To many white Southerners, a Republican was the enemy and a threat to their (slave-based) way of life. Southerners saw slavery as key to their sovereignty. One New Orleans newspaper said the Republican Party opposed the "dignity, interest, and well-being of Louisiana." Not only did the convention repudiate his protest, but the members even refused to include it in the official journal. An area to the north of Lake Pontchartrain attracted the Confederate commanders to a site with hills, tall pines, and good water. 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