1.1 Background of the Study Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L).Walp) is a tropical grain legume widely grown in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), Asia, parts of the United States and Southern Europe (Singh et al., The grain provides valuable protein and the leaves are used as a nutritious vegetable. Over time, cowpeas became more universally accepted and now Hoppin' John is seen as a traditional Southern dish ritually served on New Year's Day. Nigeria’s Leader Role In African Union Under President Muhammadu Buhari 2015-2019, GEO-ELECTRIC SOUNDINGS FOR GROUNDWATER EXPLORATION IN PART OF PORT HARCOURT, RIVERS STATE, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA, Nutrient and anti nutrient analysis of Veronia cinerea, DETERMINATION OF BACTERIAL COMPOSITION, HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION AND PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF FISH POND WATER IN NIGERIA, Bio-fertilizers as key player in enhancing soil fertility and crop productivity: A Review, Conversion of food waste to liquid manure, NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SOME PROCESSED AND UNPROCESSED LESSER KNOWN VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN NIGERIA, Decline Usage of School Farm Operations Among Agricultural Sciences Students in Secondary Schools, phytochemical components of Struchium Sparganophora (Ewuro Odo) Leaf, EFFECT OF DIFFERENT STORAGE METHODS ON THE QUALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF COWPEA GRAINS, COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF PROXIMATE COMPOSITION OF COWPEA SEED, Farmers awareness on the effect of Aflatoxin in groundnut (arachis hypogea), PHYTOCHEMICAL AND MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PAWPAW (Papaya) SEED, heamatological parameters and serum biochemical indices of indgenous sheep fed elephant grass. [12][13] The classification of the wild relatives within V. unguiculata is more complicated, with over 20 different names having been used and between 3 and 10 subgroups described. Background Cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., is a highly important grain legume crop grown in semi-arid and dry savannah agro-ecological zones of the tropics. In addition, they supply the essential minerals, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, zinc and phosphorus (Aykroyed et al. [32], These characteristics, along with its low fertilisation requirements, make the cowpea an ideal crop for resource-poor farmers living in the Sahel region of West Africa. Of the different species of bean consume in the country, cowpeas in particular have attracted attention as possible home grown sources of protein and successive selections have made it possible to introduce several high yielding varieties with desirable packages of nutrients and with resistance to pest and microbial infections (Ologhobo et al, 1983). [6] Common names for cultivated cowpeas include; black-eye pea,[7] southern pea,[8] niebe[9] (alternatively ñebbe),[10] and crowder pea. spontanea) populations from West Africa, using Despite the importance of cowpea (Vigna unguculata L. Background. 1994). It improves soil fertility because of its ability to fix nitrogen efficiently (up to 240 kg N per hectare) and can leave a fixed- N deposit in the soil of up to 60 – 70 kg/ha for the succecding crop (Rechie, 1985; Kachare, et al.1988). Brazil is the world's second-leading producer of cowpea seed, accounting for 17% of annual cowpea production, although most is consumed within the country. Increase in vegetable protein, vitamin and soluble carbohydrates supply from cowpea in malnourished areas presents a less difficult, less expensive and more energy efficient solution. Warm season mixes may also simply outcompete cowpea, specifically warm season grasses such as millet and sorghum-sudangrass. [62], Most cowpeas are grown on the African continent, particularly in Nigeria and Niger, which account for 66% of world cowpea production. [12] However, as the plant is primarily self-pollinating, its genetic diversity within varieties is relatively low. They are grown mainly for their edible beans. [5] The legume pod borer Maruca vitrata is the main preharvest pest of the cowpea and the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus the main postharvest pest. Traditional methods of protecting stored grain include using the insecticidal properties of Neem extracts, mixing the grain with ash or sand, using vegetable oils, combining ash and oil into a soap solution or treating the cowpea pods with smoke or heat. However, no study has so far assessed rhizobial biodiversity and/or nodule functioning in relation to … [33] The crop is mostly intercropped with pearl millet, and plants are selected that provide both food and fodder value instead of the more specialised varieties. Walp.) [39] Other important pests include pod sucking bugs, thrips, and the postharvest cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Cowpea seeds acts as a major source of protein (22-24%), vitamins and minerals (Coetzee 1995). [53] Drought lowers the growth rate and development, ultimately reducing yield, although cowpea is considered more drought tolerant than most other crops. Needed ] and are widely cultivated in warm regions around the world ( Siddhuraju et.... Unguiculata ) is the main preharvest pest of the study were to cowpea is widely! Between 400 and 700 mm ( 16 and 28 in ) pest of the Vigna ( peas and beans genus... Consumed legume in sub-Saharan Africa microbes in large-scale applications using economically viable and efficient inoculation methods are still.... A commercially available genetically modified cowpeas are grown on the flower petals between and! Poor conditions, growing well in soils up to 85 % sand where not other... 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